# Teaching Shiny with Knitr and Webshot

While writing Developing Data Products I concocted a little scheme for showing examples of Shiny applications in a bookdown book that I think is interesting enough to share. This method should work with any Rmd file, not just bookdown books. Shiny applications are usually composed of two R files which must be named ui.R and server.R. In order to teach students about the structure of both of these files I want to show the students the code for each file, I want them to be able to see a screenshot of the app, and I want students to be able to run the app using shiny::runGitHub(). The first workflow I had for showing these apps was:

1. Make the ui.R and server.R files and save them in a folder.
2. Copy and paste the ui.R and server.R files into an R code chunk in the Rmd file.
3. Start the Shiny app and take a screenshot of the app.
4. Insert the screenshot in to the Rmd file wih a markdown img tag (![](app.png)).

This workflow was time consuming and if I wanted to make any tweaks to the app I had to copy and paste the new code into the Rmd file and take a new screenshot. Ideally I wanted modifying the code in one place to trigger the code to be updated in the Rmd file and a new screenshot to be automatically generated.

The first goal of getting code from an R file into a code chunk in an Rmd file can be achieved with the read_chunk() function from knitr. With read_chunk() you can specify a path to an R file to “inserted” into an Rmd file. Inside of the R file you’re targeting the code that you want to include in the code chunk should have a comment above it with the syntax: # ---- [chunk name] ----. For example here’s the code from my simple server.R file which is in a directory called app:

You can then set up the Rmd file to include the code above like so:

{r, cache=FALSE, echo=FALSE}


{r server, eval=FALSE}



Notice that the chunk name in the comment at the top of server.R matches the name of the chunk where code will be inserted.

Now that getting the code in the Rmd file is figured out let’s move on to inserting a screenshot. The appshot() function from the webshot package programmatically takes a screenshot of a Shiny app providied the path to the app. If we use this function with the include_graphics() function from knitr then we can capture and insert the screenshot in one step like so:

{r, echo=FALSE}
library(webshot)
appshot(app = "app/", file = "app.png", vheight = 300)
knitr::include_graphics("app.png")



And voila, mission accomplished! By modifying just the source files, the code in the Rmd file and the screenshot of the app will now be updated whenever you knit() the Rmd file. If you want to play around with an example of this process in action I set up a GitHub repo with a simple example. Thank you to Yihui Xie for knitr and Winston Chang for the webshot package and may all your programmatic document dreams come true!

# Update (2016-11-25)

Thanks Yihui for this tip: